Summary of the impact: Our work impacts both current practices and strategic planning within the Railway Industry. In terms of current practices, our research has led to the adoption of formal verification techniques at Invensys Rail, a multi-national technology leader, as well as operational and structural changes (personnel and thinking) in the company. In terms of strategic planning, our research addresses the challenge of the adoption of the European Train Management System (ETMS) – a proposed replacement for track-side signalling – which is aimed at reducing maintenance costs, enhancing performance and improving safety. Our research produces data in support of change, and involves us in various working groups and initiatives developing national policy for the development of the UK railway. The UK Rail Industry has set itself a target of increasing capacity by a factor of two within 30 years for both passengers and freight, and it is towards this long-term goal that we frame our research activity. By releasing UK railways from the strictures of track-side signalling, ETMS represents the step-change transformation necessary for meeting this target.